Effective Teacher-Student Relationships

5. Learning Environment – The teacher fosters and manages a safe and inclusive learning environment that takes into account: physical, emotional and intellectual well-being.

5.1 Creating an Environment of Respect and Rapport – Teacher-student interactions are friendly and demonstrate general caring and respect. Such interactions are appropriate to the age and cultures of the students. Students exhibit respect for the teacher.

Teachers must provide a safe learning environment that takes into account the physical, emotional, and intellectual well-being of all students. Managing a classroom and maintaining respect and caring for all will promote higher student achievement. Without a safe learning environment, students are less likely to participate and more likely to become disengaged from learning and behave inappropriately.

Demonstrating concern and caring for each student can help build a sense of community in the classroom. According to Marzano (2007), several behaviors with students can increase academic achievement including making eye contact and friendly gestures, smiling, encouraging, and generally increasing the amount of time devoted to each interaction. Figure 1 below illustrates the various effect sizes for each teacher behavior. Having the appropriate mixture of concern, cooperation, guidance, and control in the classroom can help maintain an effective relationship with students.

Teacher Interactions with Students Source: Marzano, R. (2007). The Art and Science of Teaching. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Figure 1: Teacher Interactions with Students; Source: Marzano, R. (2007). The Art and Science of Teaching. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

During my internship so far, I have observed my mentor showing caring and compassion for students, as well as defusing potential problems and providing guidance. She accomplishes this through a variety of actions. One way is through setting expectations with students on appropriate behavior. For example, she has several posters on the wall that list how students want to feel at school (figure 2) and the acronym RULER, which stands for the social emotional learning curriculum that public schools use in my district (figure 3). She indicated that she discussed these expectations at the beginning of the year. She is also reviewing the classroom charter and the mood meter chart (figure 4) this week to reinforce the idea that students should feel safe and happy at school.

How students want to feel in class

Figure 2: How students want to feel in class

RULER: Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum

Figure 3: RULER is a Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum

Mood Meter Chart

Figure 4: Mood Meter Chart

Another way she promotes a safe and caring learning environment is by monitoring student behavior at all times. There is one student in the classroom that has anger management issues and I have observed her quickly helping the student calm down by either redirecting or having the student wait in the hall until calm enough to reenter the classroom. My mentor also makes eye contact and maintains composure in tense situations in order to calm down the student.

Through my observations so far, I have learned that promoting a friendly and respectful classroom is important for the teacher-student relationship. In my own interactions with students, I have smiled and made eye contact with them and shown appreciation if they complimented me on something. I have also shown an interest in what students have to say and even used humor when appropriate. In addition to these interactions, I also attended an after-school open house event related to World Cultures where I interacted with several students on a more informal basis.

Providing a safe and welcoming classroom environment can increase student learning. As I continue my internship, I hope to notice more ways I can demonstrate caring for students and discuss these ideas with my mentor.

References:

Marzano, R. J. (2007). The Art and Science of Teaching: A Comprehensive Framework for Effective Instruction. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

EDU 6989 Observation Reflection

As part of my field experience class at Seattle Pacific University, I observed several teachers at B. F. Day Elementary School over the past two months to gain a better understanding of the curriculum, culture, and the daily life of teachers there.

Demographics

B. F. Day is located in the Fremont neighborhood in Seattle, Washington. It is the oldest continually operating school in the city. The “building is a designated historic landmark having undergone state-of-the-art renovation in 1991” (About B. F. Day Elementary, 2016). It is a relatively small elementary school with approximately 330 students and 21 teachers. According to the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI, 2016), for the 2014-2015 school year, about 58% of students are Caucasian, 12% are Asian American, 10% are Hispanic, 8% are African American, and 12% are two or more races, making the student population moderately diverse. Approximately one-third of students quality for free or reduced-price meals, 16% are transitional bilingual, and 13% qualify for special education (OSPI, 2016).

Curriculum and Teaching Styles

B. F. Day uses the “mini middle school” system where the 4th and 5th graders have several teachers throughout the course of the day. This program is meant to help prepare them for the transition to middle school. I mostly observed the 4th and 5th grade literacy, science, and math teachers, but I also observed the physical education teacher and the art teacher. After my observations of the “mini middle school,” I am not convinced it has a positive effect on students. Instruction time is lost with as many as three transitions a day, not including transitions for recess and lunch. The students also have four or five different teachers who all have different personalities and ways of managing their classrooms. Expectations are different almost every hour depending on which teacher the students are with at that time. Additional observations in future years would help determine the effectiveness of the “mini middle school” program.

The curriculum included math, science, and literacy/social studies as the core subjects, with art and physical education on alternating days. In the math classroom, not once did I see learning targets shown anywhere, essential questions being asked, or instruction occurring. This may be an unfair assessment, given the fact that my observing was very sporadic and I generally spent the majority of the time with the science and literacy teachers. However, I frequently observed the math teacher handing out worksheets rather than actually teaching. Most of the students expressed boredom with math and were frustrated that they were forced to do so many repetitive worksheets they felt would be irrelevant in their futures.

In stark contrast, the literacy teacher had learning targets for the week posted on the board, as well as references to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for Writing, Speaking and Listening, and Reading. I graded a few worksheets and papers for her during one of my observations using the rubrics provided by the CCSS. She also used rubrics for the end of unit projects students completed and scored them on a scale of 0-4. It appeared that she used this information to improve her instruction for the rest of the unit and for future years. She also often had students turn and talk to their neighbor about answers to questions and other topics. This teaching technique seemed to work well at gaining student interest. Students were also interested in the social justice unit in their literacy class. Many liked the fact that they could choose a book from a list of books provided related to a social justice topic.

The science teacher often used PowerPoint presentations to give direct instruction, which usually included a learning target. No standards were referenced. Students seemed interested in science, especially when doing experiments such as the erosion and deposition of soil. It is unclear to me how he evaluated student progress and achievement. In general, if an experiment did not go well or the students appeared to be confused, he would simply revisit the experiment the next day to correct any errors or misconceptions. He often used sentence starters as a way to get the students to start writing a summary about a topic such as erosion and deposition. I assume he graded these summaries and took that information into account when working with particular students, but again it was hard for me to make a fair judgment based on the short amount of time I spent observing.

Child Abuse Prevention

Child abuse prevention and reporting is a critical aspect of being a teacher, counselor, principal, or other professional school employee. As part of Seattle Public Schools, B. F. Day follows Board Policy 3421 adopted in April 2012 by the district with regard to reporting child abuse:

All professional school personnel who have reasonable cause to believe that a child has experienced abuse, neglect, or exploitation shall report such incident to law enforcement or the Children’s Protective Services Staff at the first opportunity and in no case longer than forty-eight (48) hours after the finding of possible abuse or neglect.

I am sure these guidelines are reiterated at the beginning of every school year with training occurring every three years after initial employment.

Culture

Rules and expectations are posted in the hallways and in classrooms and are reinforced by faculty and staff daily. B. F. Day is in the first year of implementing the social and emotional literacy program called RULER, which stands for Recognizing, Understanding, Labeling, Expressing and Regulating emotions. They also utilize a school wide curriculum called Second Step to teach social skills. I saw posters about these programs in the hallway and in classrooms, but never observed them being referenced by teachers. I often observed students misbehaving in the hallways, in classrooms, and on the playground. Students are expected to transition between classrooms quietly and in line order, however many times students were talking and continually out of line and had to be corrected.

I generally observed good behavior in classrooms, however the math teacher struggled to maintain order in her room. On my first day of observing, I walked into a chaotic classroom where the teacher was doing very little to control her students. The math teacher asked me to help two girls with their math worksheets in the hall outside the room. The girls continued talking and were off-task the majority of the time I tried to help them. Once one of them tore up the math worksheet right in front of me and refused to do it. There seemed to be no consequences for their actions. Needless to say, the math teacher had no idea how to gain student interest in math and failed to keep students in line. She is taking a position at a different elementary school next year.

The other classrooms I observed were much better behaved. The literacy teacher indicated that she set behavior expectations at the beginning of the school year and students seemed to respect her more than the math teacher. As part of her behavior plan, she set up a classroom meeting one afternoon a week for her 5th grade classes. Every student had to compliment at least one person for something and all students were given the chance to discuss important topics such as playground issues, school or community events, and their personal lives as they felt like sharing. Students took this classroom meeting seriously and really enjoyed discussing topics.

The science teacher also set up classroom meetings for the 4th grade classes, which they appeared to enjoy. For general classroom management he used a computer/cell phone app called ClassDojo. This app allows the teacher to quickly award or take away points for each student based on their behavior. Students can gain points by being on-task, participating, and helping others. Points can be taken away for off-task behavior, talking out in class, or other distracting behaviors. At the end of the week if all students had at least 15 points, the teacher would allow them to play on the playground for the last 15 minutes of class. I think this was a great motivational technique for maintaining student engagement and behavior.

As for the faculty frustration, it was clear that the literacy teacher did not appreciate the lack of control the math teacher had over her students. During lunch I would often sit in the teachers’ rooms while they worked on their lessons for that afternoon or answered emails. Sometimes the other 4th and 5th grade teachers, with the exception of the math teacher, would join us and talk about how their day was going. Often I heard lamenting about how they wished the day or week was over and that it was summer break. Other times they felt energized about how well a lesson went that morning or how a certain student was successful at something. They seemed ever hopeful that things would get better, which was encouraging.

In summary, the school culture seemed to be one of rowdy and sometimes disengaged students, as well as frustration among the 4th and 5th grade faculty, mostly in relation to the math teacher and particular students egregiously misbehaving. It is unclear whether the students I observed were as disengaged in prior years or whether their rowdiness was a result of a poor math teacher.

As for my overall experience, I enjoyed getting to know the teachers at B. F. Day Elementary School. They welcomed me, a complete stranger, in their classrooms and allowed me to assist with experiments, grade student work, supervise the playground, inventory science kits, and perform many other tasks. B. F. Day has a handful of dedicated teachers and I am hopeful that next year’s math teacher will be an immediate improvement for the 4th and 5th graders. I hope to have a chance to revisit the school in the future. Having this chance to observe a local school gave me a better understanding of how classroom management can impact the learning environment. Building positive relationships with students and other faculty, clearly communicating expectations and enforcing them, as well as creating a compelling curriculum can make teaching incredibly rewarding.

References

About – B. F. Day Elementary. (n. d.). Retrieved May 28, 2016, from http://dayes.seattleschools.org/cms/One.aspx?portalId=2199&pageId=35328

Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved May 28, 2016, from http://reportcard.ospi.k12.wa.us/summary.aspx?groupLevel=District&schoolId=1120&reportLevel=School&year=2014-15&yrs=2014-15

Seattle Public Schools Board Policy No. 3421. April 4, 2012. Retrieved May 28, 2016, from http://www.dayes.seattleschools.org/UserFiles/Servers/Server_543/File/Migration/Departments/HR/3421.pdf

Special Education

Special education has always been foreign to me. I remember being separated from the kids who needed special education in elementary school. The special needs kids rarely interacted with kids in the general education classrooms. However, in the 1990’s, full-inclusion became the norm in public schools. There are so many factors, including individual, environmental, and social, to consider when discussing whether a special needs student should be included in the regular classroom and for how much of the school day. The individual education plan (IEP) team for that student should be well aware of the student’s strengths and weaknesses and what would be ideal to help the student grow, learn, and become as independent as possible.

In the end, what is best for the special needs student is what should be most important. This includes not only how well we can boost their intellectual performance, but also their social and emotional health. Being separated from other students can be detrimental to their social development. According to Noddings (2006), “Building relations of care and trust in the classroom is part of an ongoing critical lesson in human relations” (p. 103). This should include special needs children. It is also important for kids in the general education classrooms to be exposed to a variety of individuals so that they can learn how to accept and learn from others who are different.

However, the special education system is not without its own controversy and abuse. Some students will attempt to abuse the system by avoiding classwork or homework and claiming their disability as a cop-out. Unfortunately, parents of special needs children are also not without blame. According to Evans (2008), “Some parents confuse making life easier with making life better for their children. Too often, parents feel that protecting their child from the rigors of academic demands is in his or her best interest” (p. 330). It can be difficult for IEP teams, teachers, and counselors to argue with the parents of special needs students.

A special needs student should be given every accommodation necessary in order to have equal access to an activity. I intend to work to the best of my abilities to accommodate any special needs children placed in my future elementary classroom.

References:

Evans, Dennis. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views of Controversial Issues in Teaching and Educational Practice. 3rd Ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Noddings, Nel. (2006). Critical Lessons: What Our Schools Should Teach. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

EDU 6526: Fostering Student Self-Esteem

Teachers can have a profound effect on students’ well-being, self-confidence, and self-esteem. According to Joyce, Weil, and Calhoun (2015), “our primary influence on our students is what we model as people” (p. 310). When expectations of behavior or learning are clearly communicated, good behaviors are modeled by the teacher, and students are taught to self-monitor, self-evaluate, and self-reinforce, they can be more confident and have higher self-esteem. Social-cognitive learning theory is based on the assumption that we learn through the observation of others. Students learn by watching their parents, peers, and teachers model behavior. According to Joyce et al. (2015), schooling can have a significant impact on how successful a student is and how they grow as people. First, all students can learn how to learn if we provide them with ample opportunities and multiple types of environments. Second, “the more skills students develop and the more they widen their repertoire, the greater their ability to master an even greater range of skills and strategies” (Joyce et al., 2015, p.301). Finally, the community developed in the classroom can influence how students feel about themselves, how they interact, and how they learn (Joyce et al., 2015).

Making sure students’ physiological, safety, acceptance needs are met is crucial before a teacher can hope to foster student self-esteem. According to Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (see Figure 1), people are motivated by their needs and progress in to more profound needs as other basic needs are met. The first is physiological, which includes water, air, food, sleep, and other bodily needs. In the classroom, should could mean allowing students to take a restroom break when they need them, allowing students to have a snack mid-morning, or giving them a chance to stretch their legs by standing at their desk for a minute.

Figure 1 - Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Figure 1 – Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Image Credit: J. Finkelstein via Wikimedia Commons

The second basic need is safety. Students need to feel safe and secure before they can even begin to learn. According to John Medina (2014), students who are stressed due to a troubled home life, one or both parents in legal trouble or worse, do not learn as well. Stressed bodies have higher levels of anxiety. Teachers can help students feel safe by assuring students they are important and that if they are afraid of something, they can talk about it with a teacher or counselor. Another idea from a study by Carl Rogers is to allow students to individually talk to the teacher about anything they wanted them to know – something they are worried about, something on their minds, or even something exciting they wanted to share. This can help relieve any anxiety the student might have that prevents them from learning efficiently.

The third need is love or a sense of belonging. Teachers can help students feel like they are a part of the classroom community by including them in decisions about what they would like to read or learn about. Allowing students to voice their opinions and work with others can improve their sense of belonging. Ideas include signing up for a classroom service project or having students work with a partner on classwork in a cooperative learning setting to foster more friendships. Teachers should also model empathy for others and provide opportunities for students to practice.

Self-esteem can be fostered by teachers by modeling behaviors that lead to success. The skill should be as personally relevant to the student as possible in order to increase attention. According to Carl Rogers, “when students’ feelings are responded to, when they are regarded as worthwhile human beings capable of self-direction, and when their teacher relates to them in a person-to-person manner, good things happen.” This allows them to learn about themselves and in effect, they grow as individuals and can become more successful. Another way to help a student’s self-esteem is to make sure they have the tools necessary to be successful with a moderate amount of struggle. One particular danger to help students avoid is comparing themselves to others, which can be especially toxic if they are significantly underperforming compared to other students.

When students are equipped to overcome obstacles they face, they will have a greater sense of self-worth, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. Being able to learn from mistakes and failures instead of obsess over them is crucial to self-esteem. Teachers should also model self-monitoring, self-evaluating, and self-rewarding. When teachers are clear about expectations and set appropriately difficult goals to achieve, students will be able to monitor their progress and correct any errors along the way with feedback from the teacher. When teachers provide a safe, caring, welcoming environment, students can have high self-esteem and be successful in school and life.

References:

Joyce, B., Weil M., & Calhoun, E. (2015). Models of Teaching. 9th Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retreived February 27, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow’s_hierarchy_of_needs

Medina, J. (2014). Brain Rules. Seattle, WA: Pear Press.

Rogers, C. “Teacher Effects Research on Student Self-Concept.”

EDU 6526: Citizenship and Moral Education in the Classroom

Teaching students to be good, moral citizens is critical to their future as adults. Being a citizen means being a member of and supporting one’s family, classroom, community, social group, and country. Assuming children come to school with a developed idea of virtue, morals, and citizenship is dangerous. Today, more than ever, the family unit is disintegrating and other outside influences such as television and the Internet have crept into our children’s lives unchecked. As a future teacher, I hope to become a role model for good behavior and conflict resolution so my students learn how to become good citizens.

Learning how to build lessons around the idea of citizenship and creating a safe and respectful learning environment are important to the overall function of the classroom. One way to promote a respectful learning environment is to run the classroom like a democracy. At the beginning of the year, students can vote on what the classroom reward will be for good behavior over a period of time. The students will feel a sense of ownership over the reward and will work together in behaving appropriately in order to achieve the reward.

Another way to promote citizenship in the classroom is using the role playing model of teaching. Joyce, Weil, and Calhoun (2015) define role playing as “students exploring human relations problems by acting out problem situations and then discussing the enactments. Together, students can explore feelings, attitudes, values, and problem-solving strategies” (p. 262). According to Joyce et.al. (2015), role playing explores how values drive behaviors and students think about how they feel and what is important to them. They also think about what is important to others and can develop empathy and compassion for others, while learning strategies for resolving conflict (Joyce et.al., 2015). Other benefits of role playing include improved listening skills, negotiating skills, reasonability. It is important for students to develop these skills in order for them to become good citizens in the classroom and life in general. See Figure 1 for an outline of the role playing model.

Figure 1 - Role Playing Model

Figure 1 – Role Playing Model

Citizenship can also be promoted in the classroom through the exploration of historical or contemporary problems using nonlinguistic representations, such as generating mental pictures and creating illustrations or drawings (Dean, Hubbell, Pitler, & Stone, 2012). For example, when discussing Lewis and Clark’s expedition, the teacher could have the students imagine how Sacagawea might have felt when she initially came into contact with Lewis and Clark. Was she scared, angry, or interested? To further this thinking, students might be asked to think about whether they know anyone with Native American heritage or family. Considering how one’s actions impact others is critical to developing empathy and in turn good citizenship. When students are good citizens of the classroom, there are fewer interruptions and conflicts are resolved quicker and with less escalation. The classroom functions more smoothly in general, leading to increased concentration and learning.

There are many websites that include ideas for how to promote good citizenship and morals in the classroom. One idea in particular from this list that I like is a community service project such as picking up litter. My classroom could go out into the neighborhood surrounding the school and pick up litter. This would promote taking care of our natural resources and treating the environment with respect. I plan on incorporating many of these ideas into my future classroom in order to provide a positive, safe learning environment for my students.

References:

Davies, L. (2002). 20 Ideas for Teaching Citizenship to Children. Retrieved from http://www.kellybear.com/TeacherArticles/TeacherTip27.html.

Dean, C., Hubbell, E., Pitler, H., Stone, B. (2012). Classroom Instruction That Works: Research Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. 2nd Ed. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Joyce, B., Weil M., & Calhoun, E. (2015). Models of Teaching. 9th Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

EDSP 6648: FBAs and Their Importance

The Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) is used to collect information about problem behavior in order to understand why that problem behavior is occurring. Yell, Meadows, Drasgow, and Shriner (2013) describe four types of information that are identified in an FBA:

  1. Description of the problem behavior and daily routines
  2. Consequences maintaining the problem behavior
  3. Antecedent events that trigger problem behavior
  4. Setting events that increase the likelihood of problem behavior

An FBA is the first step in identifying the cause(s) of the behavior and hypothesizing about possible solutions. This knowledge is critical for the teacher because it can help them understand why the student is acting out and brainstorm possible ways to intervene.

In the first step of the FBA, being specific about the behavior is important. Saying that the student is “aggressive” or “frustrated” doesn’t describe exactly what is happening. The description of the behavior has to be specific and observable (i.e., not an emotion). For example, “Timmy throws his book on the floor when asked to read aloud.”

The second step is figuring out what is maintaining the behavior. “The FBA is driven by determining the function of the behavior” (Yell et. al., 2013). What is the student gaining by behaving the way they are? Are they craving attention, avoiding something, or is the root of the problem that they have a skill or performance deficit? What are the consequences of the students’ action?

Thirdly, it is important to determine what directly precedes the behavior. This could be the teacher asking the student a question or it could be teasing from a classmate.

Lastly, knowing the setting events that increase the likelihood of the problem behavior are helpful to know. These could be biological (fatigue, hunger), environmental (noise, seating distractions), or situational (routine changes, personnel changes) (Yell et. al., 2013).

An FBA can start with an interview of parents, teachers, and psychiatrists or counselors. Completing behavior check lists or rating scales can be very informative as well. Looking at medical records or other school reports can create a clearer picture of what the student is going through. Based on the interviews and data acquired so far, direct observation can solidify what was hypothesized about the problem behavior. Yell et. al. (2013) describe two types of direct observation methods: scatter plot assessment (SPA) and ABC observation. Having specific data about the time of day the behavior is most likely to occur is useful.

With this information in mind, we can better predict what exactly is causing the student to act out. The end result of the FBA is to create suggestions for the behavior intervention plan (BIP) that the student, parents, and educators follow.

I think it is critically important to watch out for students who do exhibit problematic behavior on a regular basis and to a marked degree. The main goal of an FBA should be to help improve the student’s skills and stop the bad behavior by replacing it with a more ideal and socially accepted behavior. As a future teacher, I hope to be able to react in an appropriate manner to all types of behavior. Yell et. al. (2013) assert that most teachers still tend to use punishment as the first line of defense when dealing with problem behavior. It can certainly be easy for a stressed and frustrated teacher to simply yell at the student causing the classroom disruption, but that is certainly not an ideal way to handle such events.

It will be a challenge to learn to control my own emotions and model good behavior for my future students so they in turn learn how to handle conflict appropriately. The FBA can not only be used for students with EBD, but it can also be used informally by the teacher for the general student population. Simply having a better idea about student behavior and the causes can be very helpful for dealing with any kind of student behavior, no matter how trivial. Changing my behavior and how I intervene, reinforce, or punish certain behaviors seems critical to maintaining an efficient and productive classroom conducive to learning for all.

Reference: Yell, M. L., Meadows, N. B., Drasgow, E., & Shriner, J. G. (2013). Evidence-based practices for educating students with emotional and behavioral disorders (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

EDSP 6648: Defining EBD

The term emotional and behavioral disorder (EBD) is difficult to define because everyone has a different idea of what it means. Before this class, I did not realize that EBD existed. I would have simply referred to the disorder as anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, or some other diagnosed condition. Do all students that act out in school have a EBD? Probably not, but now I realize that EBD is more complex than that. How do you know when emotional and behavioral problems constitute a disorder?

Even lawmakers have trouble coming up with a good definition of EBD (Yell, Meadows, Drasgow, & Shriner, 2013). In order for a student to receive EBD special education services, they must meet the federal definition for EBD. However the federal definition is vague and ambiguous when it comes to what a “marked degree” is and how long “a long period of time” is. Every person is different and people with EBD are no exception.

I define EBD as someone that has either an emotional or behavioral problem that causes them to have inappropriate actions or thoughts that adversely affect their ability to learn, work, or form meaningful relationships with others. These actions or thoughts happen repeatedly and over the course of several months. This would not include people with depression who have just lost a family member or someone important to them for example, unless it continues for several months and it negatively affects their learning or work. But even that definition is still lacking. The federal definition says EBD does not include people who are “socially maladjusted,” such as people who participate in gang activities. However, I feel like these people need just as much help as someone who has an anxiety disorder.

In any case, I believe many of the conceptual models and risk factors can help us better define EBD. Yell et al. (2013) describe several models including the psychodynamic, psychoeducational, ecological, humanistic, biophysical, behavioral, and cognitive models. I know it can probably be difficult to pinpoint exactly what is causing the EBD, but I think many times it is multiple factors working together. For example, the ecological model states that the poor behavior could be a result of an adverse environment. Risk factors for such an environment could include family risk factors such as having parents in legal trouble, neglect or abuse, or even rejection by family (Yell et. al., 2013).

Behavior problems could be caused by chemical imbalances in the brain or genetics, which describes the biophysical model. And yet another belief is that behavior stems from social contexts and cause and effect treatment or punishment. All of these different models and risk factors influence my description of EBD. It will be my job as a future elementary teacher to watch out for children who have either been diagnosed with EBD or show signs of having a potential problem.

Reference: Yell, M. L., Meadows, N. B., Drasgow, E., & Shriner, J. G. (2013). Evidence-based practices for educating students with emotional and behavioral disorders (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.